AMBIANCE – kurs i maj

AMBIANCE (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification) Training Workshop

Trainers: Elisa Bronfman, Ph.D., Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Ph.D, & Sheri Madigan, Ph.D. Training Dates: May 23rd – 25th , 2019
Location: Tampere university, Finland, Tampere

Enrollment through link:

Description of the course can be found here: atypical-maternal-behavior-instrument-assessment-and-classification-training
Please contact Sanna Isosävi ( or Sheri Madigan ( for further inquires on the workshop.

Objectives: (1) To review the development and conceptual framework of the AMBIANCE coding system; (2) To review and discuss a series of training tapes and learn the methodology for coding the varied dimensions of disrupted parent-infant communication; (3) To review the new rating scales for the subtypes of disrupted communication.

Fee: 1650 EUR/ person + VAT 24% (Total 2046 EUR) for the 3-day workshop and all associated consultation on coding and reliability computations. This includes 20 training tapes on DVD’s as well as accompanying training transcripts, 10 hours of follow-up phone and/or email consultation around coding issues and computation of reliabilities for one year. One copy of the 20 reliability tapes on DVD will be provided to each person/lab. Fee for attending as an observer only, without proceeding to reliability training is 1350 EUR + VAT 24% (Total 1674 EUR) if space is available.

Brief Description of the AMBIANCE measure: The AMBIANCE measure was developed in 1991 in Dr. Lyons-Ruth’s research laboratory to assess caregiver behavior associated with disorganization of infant attachment strategies and later child maladaptation. A meta-analysis by Madigan, Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2006) demonstrated that the AMBIANCE coding system has good reliability, validity, and stability over time. There are over 50 peer-reviewed publications documenting the predictive role of the AMBIANCE on child attachment, stress, and psychopathology. A bibliography of studies using the AMBIANCE measure is included below. Articles can be downloaded from the website at

Trainer Biographies

Dr. Karlen Lyons-Ruth is Professor of Psychology at Harvard Medical School and teaches in the Harvard Child Psychiatry Program. Her research has focused on the assessment of attachment relationships in high-risk environments over the infancy, childhood, and adolescent periods and has been supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and private foundations. She has served on the editorial boards of Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and the Infant Mental Health Journal. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological

Association and a former Fellow of the Radcliffe Institute. She has trained scholars and clinicians worldwide in the use of attachment-relevant methodologies.
Dr. Elisa Bronfman received her Ph.D. from Boston College in 1993. As part of her doctoral dissertation, she worked to develop the AMBIANCE scale, under the direction of Dr. Karlen Lyons-Ruth. Dr. Bronfman is the first author of the AMBIANCE, has co-trained many research teams internationally on the use of the AMBIANCE Scale (Bronfman, Madigan, Lyons-Ruth; 2009) and has published scholarly articles in the area of attachment. Elisa has been a staff psychologist at Children’s Hospital in Boston since 1998 and she has been affiliated with Harvard Medical School since 1991. Her clinical and research interests at Boston Children’s Hospital are in the areas of: Medical Coping, Craniofacial abnormalities, and Traumatic Injury.

Dr. Sheri Madigan is a child psychologist and Canada Research Chair in Determinants of Child Development at the University of Calgary. Using several large population studies, Dr. Madigan follows children from birth to middle childhood and examines how various layers of influence, such as individual, family, and contextual influences, are associated with children’s social, cognitive, and behavioral development. She conducts large-scale meta-analyses and individual participant data reviews to address disparities in the literature and accelerate theory and research in clinical and developmental science.


Madigan’s program of research, which includes national and international collaborations, is funded by

several Canadian granting agencies. She serves on the International Advisory Board for Attachment and

Human Development. Together with Drs. Lyons-Ruth and Bronfman, she has conducted over ten

AMBIANCE workshops since 2005.

Bibliography of AMBIANCE Studies

(Download at

Initial AMBIANCE Validity Study:

1. Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Parsons, E. (1999). Atypical attachment in infancy and early childhood among children at developmental risk. Part IV. Maternal frightened, frightening, or atypical behavior and disorganized infant attachment patterns. In J. Vondra & D. Barnett (Eds.), Atypical patterns of infant attachment: Theory, research, and current directions. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64(3, Serial No. 258), 67–96.

Metaanalytic Review of AMBIANCE Studies (2006) – Validity and Stability:

1. Madigan, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., van IJzendoorn, M., Moran, G., Pederson, D., & Benoit, D., (2006) Unresolved states of mind, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment: A review and meta-analysis. Attachment and Human Development, 8, 89-111.

Most recent AMBIANCE-related publications:

  1. Haltigan, J.D., Madigan, S., Bronfman, E., Bailey, H., Borland-Kerr, C., Mills-Koonce, R., & Lyons- Ruth, K. Refining the assessment of disrupted maternal communication: Using item response models to identify central indicators of disrupted behavior. Development and Psychopathology 2017; 1-17. doi:10.1017/S0954579417001778
  2. Tereno, S., Madigan, S., Lyons-Ruth, K., Plamondon, A., Atkinson, L., Guedeney, N., Greacen, T., Dugravier, R., Saias, T., Guedeney, A. Assessing a change mechanism in a randomized home- visiting trial: Reducing disrupted maternal communication decreases infant disorganization. Development and Psychopathology 2017; 29: 637–649.
  3. Lyons-Ruth, K. , Pechtel, P. , Yoon, S.A., Anderson C.M. , Teicher, M.H. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood. Behavioral Brain Research 2016; 308: 83-93.
  4. Byun, S., Brumariu, L., Lyons-Ruth, K. Disorganized attachment in young adulthood as partial mediator of relations between severity of childhood abuse and dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 2016, 17(4), 460-479.
  5. Macfie, J., Brumariu, L., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2015) Parent-child role-confusion: A critical review of an emerging concept. Developmental Review.


  1. Lyons-Ruth, K., Bureau, J. -F., Holmes, B., Easterbrooks, M., Brooks, N. H. (2013). Borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence: Prospectively observed relationship correlates in infancy and childhood. Psychiatry Research, 206, 273-281.
  2. Vulliez-Coady, L., Obsuth, I., Torreiro Casal, M., Ellertsdottir, L., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2013). Maternal role-confusion: Relations to maternal attachment and mother-child interaction from infancy to adolescence. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34, 117-131.
  3. Crockett, E., Holmes, B., Granger, D., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2013). Maternal disrupted communication during face-to-face interaction at four months: Relation to maternal and infant cortisol among at-risk families. Infancy, 18, 1111-1134.

Brumariu, L., Bureau, J-F., Nemoda, Z., Sasvari-Szekely, M., &

Lyons-Ruth, K. (2015) Attachment and temperament revisited: Infant distress, attachment

disorganisation and the serotonin transporter polymorphism. Journal of Reproductive and Infant


Yoon, S., A. Kelso, G., Lock, A., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2014). Mother–Infant Joint Attention and

Sharing: Relations to Disorganized Attachment and Maternal Disrupted Communication. The Journal

of genetic psychology,175(6), 494-510.

  1. Lyons-Ruth, K. Bureau, J., Easterbrooks, A., Obsuth, I., Hennighausen, K. (2013) Parsing the construct of maternal insensitivity: Distinct longitudinal pathways associated with early maternal withdrawal. Attachment & Human Development: Festschrift Issue for MDS Ainsworth, 15, 562-582.
  2. Shi, Z., Bureau, JF., Easterbrooks, M.A., Zhao, X., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2012) Childhood maltreatment and prospectively observed quality of early care as predictors of antisocial personality disorder. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 1-14.
  3. Pechtel, P., Woodman, A., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2012) Early maternal withdrawal and non-verbal childhood IQ as precursors for substance abuse diagnosis in young adulthood: Results of a 20-year prospective study. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5, 316-329.

Other AMBIANCE Publications:

Benoit, D., Madigan, S., Lecce, S., Shea, B., & Goldberg, S. (2001) Atypical maternal behavior before and after intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 611-626.

Bureau JF, Ann Easterbrooks M, Lyons-Ruth K. (2009) Attachment disorganization and role-reversal in middle childhood: Maternal and child precursors and correlates. Attachment & Human Development.;11(3):265 – 84.

Crawford A, Benoit D.(2009) Caregivers’ disrupted representations of the unborn child predict later infant-caregiver disorganized attachment and disrupted interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 30, 124-144.

Dutra,L., Bureau, J., Holmes, B., Lyubchik, A., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2009) Quality of early care and childhood trauma: A prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation. J Nerv Ment Dis; 197(6): 383-390.

Easterbrooks, M.A., Bureau, J-F., Lyons-Ruth, K. (2012) Developmental correlates and predictors of emotional availability in mother-child Interaction: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood. Development & Psychopathology, 24, 65-78.

Forbes, L., Evans, E., Moran, G., & Pederson, D.R. (2005). Change in atypical maternal behavior predicts change in attachment disorganization from 12 to 24 months. Child Development, 78, 955-971.

Gervai, J., Novak, A., Lakatos, K., Toth, I., Danis, I., Ronai, Z., Nemoda, Z., Sasvari-Szekely, M., Bureau, J. F., Bronfman, E., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2007) Infant genotype may moderate sensitivity to maternal affective communications: Attachment disorganization, quality of care, and the DRD4 polymorphism. Soc Neurosci; 2: 1-13.

Goldberg, S., Benoit, D., Blokland, K., & Madigan, S. (2003). Atypical maternal behavior, maternal representations and infant disorganized attachment. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 239- 257.

Grienenberger, J., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states of observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 7, 299-311.

Hobson RP, Patrick MP, Hobson JA, Crandell L, Bronfman E, Lyons-Ruth K. (2009) How mothers with borderline personality disorder relate to their year-old infants. Br J Psychiatry;195(4):325-30.

Holmes, B., Lyons-Ruth, K., Gunning, M., Hughes, S., Kelly, K., Stough, C., & Waugh, H. (Submitted for publication.) Mothers’ self-reported emotional intelligence predicts maternal disrupted behavior in face-to-face interaction with 4-month old infants.

Kelly, K., Ueng-McHale, J., Grienenberger, J., & Slade, A. (2003, April). Atypical maternal behavior and their relation to infant attachment disorganization. Poster presented at the biennial meeting for the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, Florida.

Lyons-Ruth, K. (2008) Contributions of the mother-infant relationship to dissociative, borderline, and conduct symptoms in young adulthood. Infant Ment Health J; 29(3): 203-218.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Bureau J., Riley, C., Atlas-Corbett, A. F. (2009). Socially indiscriminate attachment behavior in the Strange Situation: Convergent and discriminant validity in relation to caregiving risk, later behavior problems, and attachment insecurity. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 355-372.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Yellin, C., Melnick, S., & Atwood, G. (2005). Expanding the concept of
unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 1-23.

Madigan, S., Benoit, D., & Boucher, C. (2011). Exploration of the links among fathers’ unresolved states of mind with respect to attachment, atypical paternal behaviour, and disorganized infant-father attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 32, 286-304.

Madigan, S., Benoit, D., & Voci, S. (2011). Stability of atypical caregiver behaviors over six years and associations with disorganized attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 13, 237-252.

Madigan, S., Hawkins, E., Benoit, D., & Goldberg, S. (2006). Reduction of disrupted
caregiver behavior using modified interaction guidance. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 509- 527.

Madigan, S., Moran, G., & Pederson, D.R.(2006). Unresolved states of mind, disorganized
attachment relationships, and disrupted mother-infant interactions of adolescent mothers and their infants. Developmental Psychology, 42, 293-304.

Madigan, S., Moran, G., Schuengel, C., Pederson, D., & Otten, R. (2007). Unresolved maternal attachment representations, disrupted maternal behavior and disorganized attachment in infancy: Links to toddler behavior problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1042-1050.

Moran, G., Forbes, L., Evans, E., Tarabulsy, G., Madigan, S. (2008) Both maternal sensitivity
and atypical maternal behavior independently predict attachment security and disorganization in adolescent mother-infant relationships. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 316-320.

Najmi, S., Bureau, J., Chen, D., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (in press) Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: Longitudinal relations with mother-infant interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems. Child Abuse & Neglect.

Schechter, DS, Willheim E, Hinojosa C, Scholfield-Kleinman, K, Turner JB, McCaw J, Zeanah CH, Myers MM (2010). Subjective and objective measures of parent-child relationship dysfunction, child separation distress, and joint attention. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 73(2), 130-144.

Schechter DS, Coates, SW, Kaminer T, Coots T, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Schonfield IS, Marshall RD, Liebowitz MR Trabka KA, McCaw J, Myers MM (2008). Distorted maternal mental representations and atypical behavior in a clinical sample of violence-exposed mothers and their toddlers. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation , 9(2), 123-149.

Review Chapters:

Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., Atwood, G. (1999) A relational diathesis model of hostile-helpless states of mind: Expressions in mother-infant interaction. In: Solomon J, George C, editors. Attachment disorganization. New York: Guilford, p. 33-69.

Lyons-Ruth, K. & Jacobvitz, D. (1999). Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.) Handbook of Attachment, New York: Guilford, 520-554.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Bureau, J. F., Holmes, B., Easterbrooks, A., & Brooks, N. H. (2012). Borderline

symptoms and suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence: Prospectively observed relationship

correlates in infancy and childhood.Psychiatry research.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Jacobvitz, D. (2008) Disorganized attachment: Genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from infancy to adulthood. In: Cassidy J, Shaver P, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. 2nd Edition. New York: Guilford, p. 666-697.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Jacobvitz, D. 2016) Attachment disorganization from infancy to adulthood: Neurobiological correlates, parenting contexts, and pathways to disorder. In: Cassidy J, Shaver P, editors. Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. 3nd Edition. New York: Guilford; p. 667-695.

Clinical Chapters:

Baradon, T. & Bronfman, E. (2010). Contributions of, and divergences between, clinical work and research tools relating to trauma and disorganization. In Baradon, T. (Ed.), Relational Trauma in Infancy: Psychoanalytic, Attachment and Neuropsychological Contributions to Parent-Infant Psychotherapy: Routledge: London, England, p. 163-179.

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