Blogg, föräldraskap, forskning

Fungerar mutor, hot och bestraffning i “barnuppfostran”?

Låt mig börja med att svara ett klart och tydligt nej. Eller som Jesper Juul säger: jodå, bestraffning fungerar utmärkt i det att barnet omedelbart efter bestraffningen utdelats upphör med sitt negativa beteende. Men det får allvarliga oönskade konsekvenser på sikt…(NB. Jesper Juul menar inte att man ska bestraffa sina barn). Så. När vi nu rett ut detta:
Jag fick en fråga om forskning på hot, mutor och bestraffning, blev intresserad och började gräva lite i ämnet. Det här är vad jag kom fram till: att det inte är så enkelt att svara rakt av på frågan om tydliga referenser, eftersom det av etiska skäl finns få studier där man på ett kontrollerat experimentellt sätt skulle kunna hitta stöd för att hot, mutor och straff inte fungerar. Man får helt enkelt plocka ihop lite från olika håll.
Jag har därför inte en komplett lista på referenser, även om jag listar några längst ned, men här är några lästips, som kan ge en del stöd för resonemanget att barn inte mår bra av hot, mutor och verkligen inte av bestraffning. Listan har ingen inbördes rangordning, utan är mer ”random”:
1. Alfie Kohn är lärare och skribent, och verkar vara en mycket sympatisk person som har myntat begreppet Unconditional Parnenting. På hans webbsida kan man ta del av flera intressanta blogg-inlägg. Just det här inlägget handlar om risker när man ger barnet för mycket belöningar – nämligen att man sett i experiment att när barnet belönas tappar det intresset att utföra uppgifter utan belöning.
2. På webbsidan The doctor…. /nedan hittade jag ett intressant blogginlägg av Alice G Walton som handlar om misstag som föräldrar ofta gör. Hon har diskuterat misstagen med olika kliniker och forskare, och framförallt Dr. Alan Sroufe från Minnesota (där man gjort Minnesota Longitudinal Study) har en hel del kloka resonemang om tillit backat av data deras stora MLP forskningsprojekt.
“A child’s feeling of attachment to his parents and caregivers is one of the most important things in a child’s development, especially in the early years. L. Alan Sroufe, PhD, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Minnesota’s Institute of Child Development, says that threatening your child with abandonment, even in seemingly lighthearted ways, can shake the foundation of security and well-being that you represent. According to Sroufe, when you say things like, “I’m just going to leave you here,” it opens up the possibility that you will not be there to protect and care for them. For a child, the thought that you could leave them alone in a strange place is both terribly frightening and can begin to erode their attachment to you as the secure base from which they can encounter the world.”
(Om Alice: Alice G. Walton, PhD has a BA in English Literature and Biopsychology from Vassar College and a Ph.D. in Psychology from the City University of New York Graduate Center where she focused on biopsychology and behavioral neuroscience. She was a recipient of an NIH fellowship through the Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function, Hunter College, CUNY.)
3. Jag läste lite från Happiness is here bloggen av en mamma som bland annat skriver om risken att underminera empati hos barn. Jag vet inte exakt vad hon står för i övrigt, hon verkar förespråka Unschooling som ju är ett intressant men komplicerat koncept, men här har hon i mitt tycke en bra artikel med forskningsreferenser.
där hon bland annat skriver: ”Research suggests that our own experiences and feelings distort our ability to be empathetic towards others, and this seems to be exactly what we do to children. We intervene in social situations to punish, shame, dismiss, praise, force, and many more things that cause either positive or negative feelings, leading children to be so focused on their own emotions and reactions that they are no longer able to empathise with others. We step in and control situations, or lay down rules, instead of allowing children to learn from social interactions.  We shut down opportunities for children to feel empathy, which in turn leads us to believe they are selfish, and then we decide they need to be taught to be empathetic.”
En artikel hon refererar till är från 2017, och handlar om en kinesisk/amerikansk studie av Zhen Wu et al, om att dela med sig utan att tvingas till det, intressant.
Här är artikelns abstract:
“Research has demonstrated that prosocial sharing is emotionally rewarding, which leads to further prosocial actions; such a positive feedback loop suggests a proximal mechanism of human’s tendency to act prosocially. However, it leaves open a question as to how the emotional benefits from sharing develop in young children and whether sharing under pressure promotes happiness as well. The current study directly compared 3- and 5-year-old Chinese children’s happiness when sharing was autonomous (the recipient did not contribute to getting the reward) with when sharing was obligated (the recipient and the actor jointly earned the reward). We found that children shared more items overall when sharing was obligated than autonomous, demonstrating their conformity to social norms of merit-based sharing. In children who eventually shared with others, 5-year-olds gave out more stickers in the obligated sharing condition than in the autonomous sharing condition, but 3-year-olds shared the same amount between the conditions, suggesting that 5-year-olds adhered to the merit-based sharing norm more strictly than 3-year-olds. Moreover, in the autonomous sharing condition, children displayed greater happiness when they shared with the recipient than when they kept stickers for themselves, suggesting that costly prosocial giving benefited children with positive mood; however, children did not gain happiness when they shared with the recipient in the obligated sharing condition. These findings demonstrate that children’s affective benefits depend on the motivation underlying their prosocial behavior, and further imply that normative force and emotional gains may independently drive preschoolers’ prosocial behaviors.”
Hon refererar också till en studie om empati från Max Planck institutet, https://www.mpg.de/research/supramarginal-gyrus-empathy
4. En hel del forskning på föräldrastilar och olika typer av föräldrabeteende kan kopplas till de frågor som du tar upp. Artiklar som trots att de har några år på nacken fortfarande ofta citeras är Diana Baumrinds; Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior, Child Development, 37(4), 887-907 och Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75(1), 43-88 (läs mer om Diana Baumrinds forskning här). Hennes genomgång av de fyra olika föräldrastilar som jag även tar upp på mina föreläsningar och hur de olika stilarna kan påverkar barn finner man diskuterade här, med viss koppling till nyare forskning.
5. APA, American Psychological Association, har en artikel från 2012 på sin webbsida där man tar upp negativa effekter av att slå sina barn. Tyvärr är detta kutym i vissa länder fortsatt som du säkert vet, och i artikeln tar man upp negativa effekter på barn och kopplar det till forskning.
Särskilt nämner man Elizabeth Gerschoffs artiklar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768154/#R17) och en stor rapport om principles_and_practices-of_effective_discipline från 2008, där hon skriver:

Why Is Physical Punishment Not Effective as a Discipline Technique?

  • Decades of social science theory and research have generated several explanations for why physical punishment is likely to have few intended positive effects and many unintended negative effects.
  • It does not teach children why their behavior was wrong or what they should do instead.
  • It can interfere with parents’ intended message. The pain and fear associated with physical punishment can interfere with children’s perception and acceptance of parents’ disciplinary message and thus their internalization of that message.
  • It teaches children that they should behave in desired ways because if not they will be punished, not because there are important, positive reasons for behaving appropriately. Consequently, when the threat of punishment is not present, there is no reason to behave appropriately.
  • It models for children that it is acceptable to use aggression to get their way, especially if they are bigger or more powerful than the other person.
  • It can increase the likelihood that children will attribute hostile intentions to others in social situations that, in turn, increase the likelihood that they will behave aggressively in social interactions.
  • It may cause children to be afraid of their parents. Such fear can erode the parent-child relationship and can cause children to avoid their parents.
  • It may teach children to link violence with loving relationships.
6. På sidan Aha-Parenting, förespråkar men en helt annan approach, kallat Peaceful Parenting. I blogginlägget jag länkar till nedan diskuterar man varför ”Strict” (sträng) eller ”Harsh” (hårt) föräldraskap inte fungerar.
Barn med stränga föräldrar har mindre möjligheter att lära sig varför man ska göra på ett visst (moraliskt korrekt) sätt och inte ett annat, att så att säga internalisera värderingar och agera utifrån en inre motivation snarare än en yttre. En alltför sträng föräldrastil kan skrämma barnet, lära barnet att aggression är ett framkomligt sätt och till och med ett sätt att föredra. Barn som utsätts för strängt/hårt föräldraskap (eller en alltför auktoritär stil) riskerar att få psykiska svårigheter längre fram såsom depression, aggressionsutbrott och ångest. De diskuterar också fysisk bestraffning:
“Punishment is the root of violence on our planet.” – Marshall Rosenberg (som är upphovsman till Non-Violent Communication eller Giraffspråket)
Det betyder inte att en slapp eller alltför tillåtande föräldrastil rekommenderas, tvärtom. Gränser behövs, men det är inom ramen för en varm relation gränserna sätts, menar man.
Om gränser:
Hur fungerar ”Peaceful Parenting”?
“One generation full of deeply loving parents would change the brain of the next generation, and with that, the world.” —Charles Raison
7. Sist men inte minst, kan du i princip all anknytningsforskning finna belägg för varför ett nyanserat, lyhört föräldraskap är att föredra framför alla typer av hot, straff, mutor mm. Se tex.
Några referenser till anknytningsforskning:
  • Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
  • Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss: Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.
  • Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.
  • Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. (2008). Internal working models in attachment relationships:  Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory.  In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (pp. 102-130). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Burt, K.B., van Dulmen, M.H.M., Carlivati, J., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L.A., Forman, D.R., Appleyard, K., & Carlson, E.A. (2005). Mediating links between maternal depression and offspring psychopathology: The importance of independent data. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46 (5), 490-499.
  • Carlson, E. A. (in press).  Attachment disturbance, disorganization, and disorder.  In E. Waters & B. Vaughn (Eds.), Attachment measurement.  New York: Guilford Press.
  • Carlson, E.A., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L.A. (2009). A prospective investigation of the development of borderline personality symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 1311-1334.
  • Carlson, E.A., Yates, T.M., & Sroufe, L.A. (2009). Dissociation and development of the self. In P.F. Dell, J. O’Neill, & E. Somer (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM V and beyond (pp. 39-52). New York: Routledge.
  • Carlson, E. A., Sampson, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2003). Attachment theory and pediatric practice. Journal of Development and Behavior Pediatrics, 24(5), 364-379.
  • Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. F. (2004). Lessons from STEEP: Linking theory, research, and practice for the well-being of infants and parents. In A. Sameroff, S. McDonough & K. Rosenblum (Eds.), Treating Parent-Infant Relationship Problems (pp. 213-242). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Egeland, B., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1988). Breaking the cycle of abuse. Child Development, 59(4), 1080-1088.
  • Egeland, B., Weinfield, N., Bosquet, M., & Cheng, V. (2000). Remembering, repeating, and working through: Lessons from attachment-based interventions. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), WHIMH Handbook of Infant Mental Health (Vol. 4, pp. 35-89). New York: Wiley.
  • Fury, G., Carlson, E. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Children’s representations of attachment relationships in family drawings. Child Development, 68, 1154-1164.
  • Hesse, E. (1999). The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and current perspectives. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (pp. 395-433). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2000). Disorganized infant, child, and adult attachment: Collapse in behavioral and attentional strategies.Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48, pp. 1097-1127.
  • Holmes, J. (1998). Defensive and creative uses of narrative psychotherapy: An attachment perspective. In G. Roberts & J. Holmes (Eds.), Narrative in psychotherapy and psychiatry (pp. 49-68). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Lawrence, C., Carlson, E.A., & Egeland, B. (2006). The impact of foster care on development. Development and Psychopathology, 28(1), 57-76.
  • Lieberman, A., & Zeanah, C. H. (1999). Contributions of attachment theory to infant-parent psychotherapy and other interventions with infants and young children. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 555-574). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Liotti, G. (1992). Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 4, 196-204.
  • Main, M. (1995). Recent studies in attachment: Overview with selected implications for clinical work. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives (pp. 407-475). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
  • Main, M. (2000). The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48, pp. 1055-1096.
  • Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1998). Adult attachment interview scoring and classification manual–6th version.Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.),Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 161-182). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1-2, Serial No. 209), 66-104.
  • Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth strange situation. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 121-160). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Marvin, R., Cooper, C., Hoffman, K., & Powell, B. (2002). The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver-preschool child dyads. Attachment & Human Development, 4(1), 107-124.
  • Muir, E. (1992). Watching, waiting, and wondering: Applying psychoanalytic principles to mother-infant intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13(4), 319-328.
  • NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 68, 860-879.
  • Raby, K.L., Cicchetti, D., Carlson, E.A., Cutuli, J.J., & Egeland, B. (under review).  Genetic and caregiving contributions to individual differences in infant attachment:  Unique pathways to attachment security and distress reactivity.
  • Salvatore, J.E., Simpson, J.A., Haydon, K.C., Carlson, E.A., & Collins, W.A. (in press).  Distinctive developmental precursors to maladaptive conflict strategies in adult romantic relationships. Psychological Science.
  • Sander, L. (1975). Infant and caretaking environment. In E. J. Anthony (Ed.), Explorations in child psychiatry (pp. 129-165). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Sroufe, J. (2003). Applications of attachment theory to the treatment of latency age children. In M. Cortina & M. Marrone (Eds.),Attachment theory and the psychoanalytic process (pp. 204-226). London: Whurr Press.
  • Sroufe, L. A. (1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development,48, 1184-1199.
  • Sroufe, L. A. (1986). Appraisal: Bowlby’s contribution to psychoanalytic theory and developmental psychology; attachment: separation: loss. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 841-849.
  • Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development:  A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood, Attachment and Human Development, 7, 349-367.
  • Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The development of the person. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The place of early attachment in developmental context. In K. E. Grossmann, K. Grossmann, & E. Waters (Eds.), Attachment from infancy to adulthood:  The power of longitudinal studies (pp. 48-70). New York: Guilford Publications
  • Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Kreutzer, T. (1990). The fate of early experience following developmental change: Longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood. Child Development, 61, 1363-1373.
  • Sroufe, L. A., & Fleeson, J. (1986). Attachment and the construction of relationships. In W. Hartup & Z. Rubin (Eds.), Relationships and development (pp. 51-71). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Sroufe, L. A., & McIntosh, J. (2011, July). Divorce and attachment relationships: The longitudinal journey. Family Court Review.
  • Sroufe, L. A., Coffino, B., Carlson, E. A. (2010). Conceptualizing the role of early experience: Lessons from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study. Developmental Review, 30(1), 36-51.
  • Steele, H. & Steele, M. (2008). Clinical applications of the Adult Attachment Interview. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Yates, T. M., Carlson, E. A., & Egeland, B. (2008). A prospective study of child maltreatment and self-injurious behavior in a community sample. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 651-571.
Mer artiklar om föräldraskap:
  • Burhans, Karen Klein, and Carol S. Dweck. “Helplessness in Early Childhood: The Role of Contingent Worth.” Child Development 66 (1995): 1719-38.
  • Chapman, Michael, and Carolyn Zahn-Waxler. “Young Children’s Compliance and Noncompliance in Parenting.” In Marc H. Bornstein, ed., Handbook of Parenting, vol. 4, Applied and Practical Parenting. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.
  • Dienstbier, et al. “An Emotion-Attribution Approach to Moral Behavior.” Psychological Review 82 (1975): 299-315.
  • Hoffman, Martin. “Power Assertion by the Parent and Its Impact on the Child.” Child Development 31 (1960): 129-34.
  • Hoffman, Martin. “Moral Development.” In Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology, 3rd ed., vol. 2, edited by Paul H. Mussen. New York: Wiley, 1970b. 285-6
  • Assor, Avi, Guy Roth, and Edward L. Deci. “The Emotional Costs of Parents’ Conditional Regard: A Self-Determination Theory Analysis.” Journal of Personality 72 (2004): 47-89.
  • Grolnick, Wendy S. The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2003.
  • Hoffman, Marin, and Herbert D. Saltzstein. “Parent Discipline and the Child’s Moral Development.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5 (1967): 45-57.
  • Cohen, Patricia, and Judith S. Brook. “the Reciprocal Influence of Punishment and Child Behavior Disorder.” In Coercion and Punishment in Long-Term Perspectives, edited by Joan McCord. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Kandel, Denise B., and Ping Wu. “Disentangling Mother-Child Effects in the Development of Antisocial Behavior.” In Coercion and Punishment in Long-Term Perspectives, edited by Joan McCord. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Gershoff, Elizabeth Thompson. “Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associate Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analysis and Theoretical Review.” Psychological Bulletin 128 (2002): 539-79.
  • Gordon, Thomas. Teaching Children Self-Discipline…At Home and at School. New York: Times Books, 1989.
  • Hoffman, Martin. “Conscience, Personality, and Socialization Techniques.” Human Development 13 (1970a): 90-126.
  • Sears, Robert R., Eleanor E. Maccoby, and Harry Levin. Patterns of Child Rearing. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, 1957.
  • Stormshak, et al “Parenting Practices and Child Disruptive Behavior Problems in Early Elementary School.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 29 (2000): 17-29.
  • Straus, Murray A. “Children Should Never, Ever, Be Spanked, No Matter What the Circumstances.” In Current Controversies on Family Violence, 2nd ed., edited by Donileen R. Loseke, Richard J. Gelles, and Mary M. Cavanaugh. London: Sage, 2004.
  • Straus, Murray A., David B. Sugarman, and Jean Giles-Sims. “Spanking by Parents and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior of Children.” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151 (1997): 761-67.
  • Straus, Murray A. Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families and Its Effects on Children. 2nd ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2001.
  • Toner, Ignatius J. “Punitive and Non-Punitive Discipline and Subsequent Rule-Following in Young Children.” Child Care Quarterly 15 (1986): 27-37.

Referenser från Gershoffs artikel “Spanking and Child Development” (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768154/#R17)  från 2013 där hon skriver:

“Spanking remains a common, if controversial, childrearing practice in the United States. In this article, I pair mounting research indicating that spanking is both ineffective and harmful with professional and human rights opinions disavowing the practice. I conclude that spanking is a form of violence against children that should no longer be a part of American childrearing.”

  • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Policy Statement on Corporal Punishment. Jul 30, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/policy_statements/policy_statement_on_corporal_punishment.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health Guidance for effective discipline. Pediatrics. 1998;101(2 pt 1):723–728. published correction appears in Pediatrics. 1998;102(2 pt 1) [PubMed]
  • American Humane Association . Child Protection Position Statements. 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.americanhumane.org/assets/pdfs/children/child-welfare-migration/au-childrens-division-position-statements-1.pdf.
  • Baumrind D, Larzelere RE, Cowan PA. Ordinary physical punishment: Is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002) Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:580–589. [PubMed]
  • Bender HL, Allen JP, McElhaney KB, Antonishak J, Moore CM, Kelly HO, Davis SM. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology. 2007;19:227–242. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berlin LJ, Ispa JM, Fine MA, Malone PS, Brooks-Gunn J, Brady-Smith C, Bai Y. Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development. 2009;80:1403–1420. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01341.x. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Committee on the Rights of the Child . General comment No. 8 (2006): The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and or cruel or degrading forms of punishment (articles 1, 28(2), and 37, inter alia), 42nd Sess., U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/8. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC.C.GC.8.pdf.
  • Deater-Deckard K, Dodge KA. Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry. 1997;8:161–175.
  • Deater-Deckard K, Dodge KA, Bates JA, Pettit GS. Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children’s externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology. 1996;32:1065–1072.
  • Dobbs TA, Smith AB, Taylor NJ. No, we don’t get a say, children just suffer the consequences”: Children talk about family discipline. International Journal of Children’s Rights. 2006;14:137–156.
  • Dobson JC. The New Dare to Discipline. Tyndale House; Wheaton, IL: 1996.
  • Dodge KA, Pettit GS, McClaskey CL, Brown M. Social competence in children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1986;51 1, Serial No. 213.
  • Durrant J, Trocmé N, Fallon B, Milne C, Black T, Knoke D. CECW Information Sheet #41E. University of Toronto, Faculty of Social Work; Toronto, ON: 2006. Punitive violence against children in Canada. Retrieved from www.cecw-cepb.ca/DocsEng/PunitiveViolence41E.pdf.
  • Eron LD, Walder LO, Lefkowitz MM. Learning of aggression in children. Little, Brown, & Co.; Boston: 1971.
  • Europe-Wide Ban on Corporal Punishment of Children, Recommendation 1666 . Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe (21st Sitting) Jun 23, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.assembly.coe.int/Mainf.asp?link=/Documents/AdoptedText/ta04/EREC1666.htm#_ftn1.
  • General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, USA . General Assembly adopts wide range of social justice issues. Jul 6, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.pcusa.org/news/2012/7/6/general-assembly-adopts-wide-range-social-justice-/
  • Gershoff ET. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:539–579. [PubMed]
  • Gershoff ET. Report on Physical Punishment in the United States: What Research Tells Us About Its Effects on Children. Center for Effective Discipline and Phoenix Children’s Hospital; Columbus, OH, and Phoenix, AZ: 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.phoenixchildrens.com/PDFs/principles_and_practices-of_effective_discipline.pdf.
  • Gershoff ET. More harm than good: A summary of scientific research on the intended and unintended effects of corporal punishment on children. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2010;73:33–58.
  • Gershoff ET, Bitensky SH. The case against corporal punishment of children: Converging evidence from social science research and international human rights law and implications for U.S. public policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. 2007;13:231–272.
  • Gershoff ET, Grogan-Kaylor A. Spanking and its consequences for children: New meta-analyses and old controversies. 2013. Manuscript under review.
  • Gershoff ET, Grogan-Kaylor A, Lansford JE, Chang L, Zelli A, Deater-Deckard K, Dodge KA. Parent discipline practices in an international sample: Associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness. Child Development. 2010;81:487–502. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01409.x. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gershoff ET, Lansford JE, Sexton HR, Davis-Kean PE, Sameroff AJ. Longitudinal links between spanking and children’s externalizing behaviors in a national sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Families. Child Development. 2012;83:838–843. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01732.x. [PubMed]
  • Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children . States with full abolition. Author; London: 2012. Retrieved from http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org.
  • Grusec JE, Goodnow JJ. Impact of parental discipline methods on the child’s internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology. 1994;30:4–19.
  • Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM, editors. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents. 3rd ed. American Academy of Pediatrics; Elk Grove Village, IL: 2008.
  • Hineline PN, Rosales-Ruiz J. Behavior in relation to aversive events: Punishment and negative reinforcement. In: Madden GJ, Dube WV, Hackenberg T, Hanley G, Lattal KA, editors. APA Handbook of BehaviorAnalysis. American Psychological Association; Washington, D.C.: 2012. pp. 483–512.
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Jag avslutar med en stark film från Frankrike i en kampanj att förbjuda aga. (Länk till youtube).

https://youtu.be/65nnh_FdTdE

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